Category Archives: Slavery

Portsmouth, Virginia: ‘Til Death Do Us Part’: The marriage of Pvt. Esau Bowers, 2nd Regiment, U. S. Colored Infantry

Bowers Marriage Cert Copyright 2017 Nadia Orton

Marriage certificate of Pvt. Esau Bowers and Lucy B. Williams. Portsmouth, Virginia, 1876.

 

“Til Death Do Us Part” – The marriage certificate of Pvt Esau Bowers, (ca. 1837-1877) Company B, 2nd Regiment, U. S. Colored Infantry, and Lucy Brownley Williams, Portsmouth, Virginia, April 5, 1876. The minister who performed their marriage, Rev. John H. Offer, was also a Civil War veteran. Born in Maryland, Rev. Offer was a Sergeant with Co. H, 30th Regiment, U. S. Colored Infantry, and served as the pastor of historic Emanuel A.M.E. Church in Portsmouth from 1871 to 1877.

Pvt. Esau Bowers was born enslaved, in Portsmouth, Virginia. According to marriage records, he was the son of Esau and Charlotte Bowers. When he was about twenty-six years old (as indicated in military records), he enlisted on July 6, 1863, at Portsmouth, Virginia, under (then) Col. William Birney, and mustered six days later at Arlington, Virginia. During the Battle of Natural Bridge (Florida), on March 6, 1865, Pvt. Bowers was hit by grapeshot on his lower right leg. Left on the field of battle, he was presumed captured by Confederate forces. Bowers was later returned to his company, or “exchanged,” according to George Connor, a fellow member of the 2nd Regiment, on March 8, 1865. Due to the severity of his injury, Pvt. Bowers’ right leg was amputated below the knee, and he spent awhile recuperating in Hicks General Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, before being discharged from service in 1866.

 

Hicks General Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland. Library of Congress

 

Lucy was Esau’s third wife.  She was born on Easter Sunday, 1836, in Mathews County, Virginia. Lucy and her parents, William and Sally Brownley, were slaves on the Willow Grove plantation, owned by Thomas Smith, a wealthy scion of a prominent colonial family.

 

Map of Gloucester and Mathews counties, Virginia, 1862. Library of Congress

 

Lucy and Esau weren’t married very long before his health took a grave turn for the worse. Upon his return to Tidewater, Virginia, Esau continued to suffer from the complications of his amputation during the war. Often in pain, he tried to work as hard and often as he could, out of economic need, with the use of a prosthetic, then commonly known as a “cork leg.” Like many African American families in the region, Esau and Lucy were poor, and struggled daily to make ends meet. A foreman of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard noted that despite his determination and fortitude, Esau often had to take breaks, physically unable to work because of the consistent pain in his leg. Not being able to afford a doctor, Esau and Lucy depended on help from their neighbors, and those that tried to fill the void prepared salves for Esau’s leg.

 

Pvt. Bowers Portsmouth Orton Copyright 2010

Gravestone of Pvt. Esau Bowers, Co. B, 2nd U. S. Colored Infantry. Mt. Olive Cemetery (Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex). Photo: Nadia K. Orton, October 10, 2010

 

Pvt. Esau Bowers passed away on January 5, 1877. His headstone, in Mt. Olive Cemetery (Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex), was provided by the Gross Brothers of Lee, Massachusetts. After Esau’s death, Lucy continued working as a washerwoman, and was a resident of Portsmouth’s Lincoln Park by 1900. She passed away soon after. The location of her grave in the Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex is currently unknown.♦

 

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Filed under Arlington, Baltimore, Chesapeake, Civil War, Florida, Fort Monroe, Hampton, Maryland, Mathews County, Norfolk County, Slavery, Tombstone Tales, U. S. Colored Troops, Virginia

Portsmouth, Virginia: Four United States Colored Troops get new headstones

Four more replacement headstones for Portsmouth, Virginia Civil War veterans have been installed in the Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex. These brave men, who fought for freedom and equality, were from Hinds County, Mississippi, Currituck County, North Carolina, and the independent cities of Chesapeake and Suffolk, Virginia. Stay tuned for more updates!

 

Pvt. Zachariah Taylor, Company H, 5th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Born September 2, 1846, in Hinds County, Mississippi. Enlisted on May 18, 1864, at City Point, Virginia. Mustered in seven days later at City Point, May 25, 1864. Mustered out on September 20, 1865, at Carolina City, North Carolina. Passed on September 4, 1909, Portsmouth, Virginia. ♥

 

Taylor USCT Portsmouth Copyright Nadia Orton

Mt. Olive Cemetery, Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex. Photo: Nadia K. Orton, October 25, 2010.

 

Copyright Nadia K. Orton 2017

New headstone, installed July 26, 2017. Mt. Olive Cemetery, Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex. Photo: Nadia K. Orton, July 27, 2017

 


 

Pvt. Samuel Dyes, Company G, 36th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Born October 8, 1835, Norfolk County (City of Chesapeake), Virginia. Enlisted December 9, 1863, Norfolk, Virginia. Mustered December 28, 1863, Norfolk, Virginia. Mustered out October 28, 1866, Brazos Santiago, Texas. Died July 25, 1925, Portsmouth, Virginia. ♥

 

Copyright 2010 Nadia K. Orton

Photo: Nadia K. Orton, October 25, 2010. Mount Calvary Cemetery (Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex)

 

Copyright 2017 Nadia Orton Portsmouth VA

New headstone, installed July 26, 2017. Photo: Nadia K. Orton, July 27, 2017. Mt. Calvary Cemetery, Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex.

 


 

Pvt. Washington Milbey, Company F, 10th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Born ca. 1818, Nansemond County (City of Suffolk), Virginia. Enlisted November 25, 1863, Craney Island, Virginia. Mustered December 17, 1863, Fort Monroe, Virginia. Mustered out May 17, 1866, Galveston, Texas. Died January 22, 1894, Portsmouth, Virginia. ♥

 

Copyright Nadia K. Orton 2010

Photo: Nadia K. Orton, December 9, 2010. Mt. Olive Cemetery, Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex.

 

Copyright 2017 Nadia Orton Portsmouth VA

New headstone, installed July 26, 2017. Photo: Nadia K. Orton, July 27, 2017. Mt. Olive Cemetery, Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex.

 


 

Sgt. James “Jim” Edwards, Company C, 2nd Regiment, United States Colored Cavalry. Born ca. 1840, Currituck County, North Carolina. Enlisted and mustered December 24, 1863, Fort Monroe, Virginia. Mustered out February 12, 1866, Brazos Santiago, Texas. Died September 15, 1901, Portsmouth, Virginia. ♥

 

Sgt. James Edwards USCT Mt. Olive Portsmouth Orton

Sgt. James Edwards, 2nd U. S. Colored Cavalry. Mt. Olive Cemetery, Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex. Photo: Nadia K. Orton, 2015

 

Copyright 2017 Nadia Orton Portsmouth VA

New headstone, installed July 26, 2017. Photo: Nadia K. Orton, July 27, 2017. Mt. Olive Cemetery, Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex.

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Filed under Brazos Santiago, Chesapeake, City Point, Civil War, Currituck County, Galveston, Hopewell, Memorials to Civil War Veterans, Mississippi, Norfolk County, North Carolina, Petersburg, Portsmouth, Richmond, Slavery, Suffolk, Tombstone Tales, U. S. Colored Troops, Virginia

Portsmouth, Virginia: Three new headstones for local freedom fighters!

We just received word that three more local freedom fighters are set to get new headstones. Two have Bertie County, North Carolina roots, and one is from Portsmouth, Virginia. The headstones will be installed over the next few months, weather permitting. They are:

 

Pvt. Arthur Beasley Mt. Calvary Portsmouth copyright 2013 Nadia Orton

Pvt. Arthur Beasley, Co. I, 1st Regiment, U. S. Colored Cavalry. Mount Calvary Cemetery, Portsmouth, Virginia. Photo: Nadia K. Orton, March 9, 2013.

 

Private Arthur Beasley, Company I, 1st Regiment, United States Colored Cavalry. Born about 1840, Bertie County, North Carolina. Enlisted on August 2, 1864, Norfolk, Virginia. Mustered in September 7, 1864, at Newport News, Virginia. Mustered out, February 4, 1866, at Brazos Santiago, Texas. Passed away on May 8, 1896, Portsmouth, Virginia. Interment, Mount Calvary Cemetery (Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex).

 

Pvt. David Bailey 10th USCI Portsmouth Copyright 2013 Nadia Orton

Pvt. David Bailey, Co. F, 10th Regiment, U. S. Colored Infantry, Lincoln Memorial Cemetery, Portsmouth, Virginia. Photo: Nadia K. Orton, September 28, 2013.

 

Private David Bailey, Company F, 10th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Born about 1840, Western Branch, Norfolk County, Virginia. Enlisted on December 4, 1863, Craney Island, Virginia. Mustered in December 17, 1863, at Fort Monroe, Virginia. Mustered out on May 17, 1866, at Galveston, Texas. Died on November 30, 1916, Portsmouth, Virginia. Interment, Lincoln Memorial Cemetery (est. 1912).

 

Cpl George Baysmore 36 USCI Portsmouth Copyright 2011 Nadia K. Orton

Cpl George Baysmore, Co. H, 36th Regiment, U. S. Colored Infantry. Mount Calvary Cemetery, Portsmouth, Virginia. Photo: Nadia K. Orton, April 8, 2011.

 

Corporal George Baysmore, Company H, 36th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Born about 1835, Bertie County, North Carolina. Enlisted on July 13, 1863, at Plymouth (Washington County), North Carolina. Mustered in January 25, 1864, at Norfolk, Virginia. Mustered out on January 17, 1866, at Hicks General Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, an early discharge due to disability from gunshot wounds received at the Battle of New Market Heights/Chaffin’s Farm, September 29, 1864. He passed away on November 19, 1898, Portsmouth, Virginia. Interment, Mount Calvary Cemetery (Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex). ♥

 

 

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Filed under Baltimore, Bertie County, Chesapeake, Civil War, Craney Island, Fort Monroe, Maryland, Norfolk, Norfolk County, North Carolina, Portsmouth, Slavery, Texas, Tombstone Tales, U. S. Colored Troops, USCT Diaries, Virginia, Washington County

Portsmouth, Virginia: Replacement headstones on the way!

Yesterday, I was able to visit ancestral ground, and mark the grave locations of three Civil War veterans, freedom fighters all, who’ll soon get new headstones. Our family was able to set aside the money necessary to install them. A great day!

Copyright Nadia K. Orton 2010

Photo: Nadia K. Orton, December 9, 2010, Mount Olive Cemetery (Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex)

 

Pvt. Washington Milbey, Company F, 10th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Born ca. 1818, Nansemond County (City of Suffolk), Virginia. Enlisted November 25, 1863, Craney Island, Virginia. Mustered December 17, 1863, Fort Monroe, Virginia. Mustered out May 17, 1866, Galveston, Texas. Died January 22, 1894, Portsmouth, Virginia.

 

Copyright 2013 Nadia K. Orton

Photo: Nadia K. Orton, May 26, 2013. Mount Olive Cemetery (Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex)

 

Sgt. James “Jim” Edwards, Company C, 2nd Regiment, United States Colored Cavalry. Born ca. 1840, Currituck County, North Carolina. Enlisted and mustered December 24, 1863, Fort Monroe, Virginia. Mustered out February 12, 1866, Brazos Santiago, Texas. Died September 15, 1901, Portsmouth, Virginia.

 

Copyright 2010 Nadia K. Orton

Photo: Nadia K. Orton, October 25, 2010. Mount Calvary Cemetery (Mt. Calvary Cemetery Complex)

 

Pvt. Samuel Dyes, Company G, 36th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Born ca. 1835, Norfolk County (City of Chesapeake), Virginia. Enlisted December 9, 1863, Norfolk, Virginia. Mustered December 28, 1863, Norfolk, Virginia. Mustered out October 28, 1866, Brazos Santiago, Texas. Died July 25, 1925, Portsmouth, Virginia. ♥

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Filed under Civil War, Currituck County, Hampton, Norfolk, Norfolk County, North Carolina, Portsmouth, Slavery, Suffolk, Texas, U. S. Colored Troops, USCT Diaries, Virginia

Edgecombe County, North Carolina: Historical marker dedication, State v. Will, 1834

State v Will marker Battleboro NC Copyrigh 2017 Nadia Orton

Historical Marker, State v Will, 1834. Battleboro, NC, June 10, 2017

Over the weekend, I had the opportunity to join fellow members of the Phoenix Historical Society of Edgecombe County, North Carolina, for the dedication of the historical marker commemorating the landmark State v. Will Case of 1834. From the pamphlet distributed during the program:

The North Carolina Star, January 31, 1834

“On January 22, 1834, Will, a slave belonging to James Battle at his Edgecombe County plantation, Walnut Creek, killed a white man. The charges brought against Will at the time resulted in the State v. Will case, in which the North Carolina Supreme Court protected slaves from a charge of murder when acting in self-defense.

The day started with an argument between Will a slave foreman named Allen over the possession of a hoe that Will had made by hand. Tempers flared and Will broke the hoe before going to work at a nearby cotton mill. After learning of Will’s behavior, Richard Baxter, Battle’s overseer, set off on horseback with his gun. Allen followed with his whip. Confronted by Baxter, Will attempted to flee but was shot in the back. Wounded and running for his life, Will was overtaken. Armed with a knife, Will fought off Baxter. A deep knife wound to Baxter’s arm proved fatal.

Will was charged with murder, although a white man in the same circumstances would have been charged with manslaughter. After looking at the evidence Battle believed that Will acted in self-defense, and he hired two prominent attorneys, Bartholomew Figures Moore and George Washington Mordecai, to defend Will against the murder conviction.

The case was appealed to the state Supreme Court, which ruled unanimously that any slave under such provocation could only be charged with manslaughter. This challenged the 1829 State v. Mann decision which held that a master’s power over a slave was absolute and that the slave’s submission must be “perfect.”

Justice William Gaston, who wrote the opinion, said that the law required exceptions to the unconditional and absolute power over slaves as described in Justice Thomas Ruffin’s State v. Mann. Ina direct reference to Thomas Ruffin’s opinion in Mann, Moore had opened his argument with the point that “absolute power is irresponsible power, circumscribed by no limits save its own imbecility and selecting its own means with unfettered discretion.” Gaston reasoned that the act was “a brief fury” that left Will incapable of rational thought. Further humanizing Will he wrote that it was “instinctive to fly, human to struggle, and terror or resentment the strongest of passions, had given the struggle its fatal issue.”

It was Gaston’s conclusion that the law must treat slaves as any other human in such a case. He stated, “If the passions of the slave be excited into unlawful violence by the inhumanity of a master…is it a conclusion of law that such passion must spring from diabolical malice?” The decision was praised by abolitionists, covered by newspapers around the country, and cited as precedent in other legal cases. Will’s bold act of resistance served to humanize slaves in the eyes of the law.” (ncmarkers.com)

The dedication of the marker was held at the Dunbar Community Center in Battleboro, North Carolina. During the program, I learned that the director of the Dunbar Center and members of the Dunbar community had graciously allowed the center’s use for the program, and I once again appreciated the maintenance of ties between extant black communities and the preservation of African American history. The center was once a funeral home, donated to the community, and preserved and enlarged through several state and private grants. Others in attendance included representatives of the Edgecombe County Board of Commissioners, the North Carolina Office of Archives and History, Black Workers for Justice, and the Carolina Auto, Aerospace and Machine Workers Union (CAAMWU)  . The Benediction and Grace was delivered by Deacon Linwood Armston of Holy Temple Holiness Church, Tarboro, North Carolina.

Dunbar Community Center Battleboro NC 2017 Copyright Nadia Orton

Dunbar Community Center, Battleboro, North Carolina

 

Dunbar Center North Carolina Copyright 2017 Nadia Orton

Dunbar Community Center, June 10, 2017. Edgecombe County, North Carolina

 

Keynote Preservation State V Will Copyright 2017 Nadia Orton

Keynote speaker, Dr. David Dennard, Director African and African American Studies, East Carolina University, and member of the North Carolina Historical Commission

State v. Will is an extremely interesting piece of history, and it must be placed within its appropriate historical context, occurring between the publication of David Walker’s Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World (1829), Nat Turner’s Rebellion of 1831, in Southampton County, Virginia, and the 1857 Dred Scott v. Sanford case, or Dred Scott Decision, in which the Supreme Court ruled that “a black man has no rights which a white man is bound to respect.” In 1834, Will, through his act of self-defense, had essentially asserted his own humanity. In the aftermath of the case, Will’s owner, James Smith Battle (1786-1854), sent Will to Mississippi, where he was later executed (by hanging) for the murder of another slave. As reported in an article by the News and Observer, Will’s wife,  “Aunt Rose,” was overheard saying “Will surely had hard luck.” On June 10th, the program held in commemoration of Will’s act of resistance provided some small measure of dignity to a man who was afforded so little in life. And in learning more of Will’s story, I came to fully  appreciate the symbolism inherent within the program’s location: in an early institution of the Dunbar community (former funeral home), preserved as a recreation and heritage center, and surrounded by living descendants of the enslaved on the Battle plantation.

State v. Will (1834), near Tarboro, NC, is the sixth historical marker sponsored by the Phoenix Historical Society of Edgecombe County, North Carolina. Others include: African Americans Defend Washington (1863), Washington, NC; the Knights of Labor (1886-1890), Tarboro, NC; Congressman George H. White & Black Second District (1897-1901), Tarboro, NC:  Thelonious Monk (1917), Rocky Mount, NC; and Operation Dixie: Tobacco Leaf House Workers Organizing Campaign (1946), Rocky Mount, NC.

 

The Phoenix Historical Society of Edgecombe County, North Carolina

“To recover, record, and promote the unique history of Edgecombe County experienced by members of its African American community.”

State v Will Historical Marker Copyright 2017 Nadia Orton

State v Will Historical Marker. Battleboro, North Carolina, June 10, 2017

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Filed under Edgecombe County, Mississippi, North Carolina, Slavery, Southampton County, Suffolk, Virginia

On Memorial Day, Reflecting on African-American History – The National Trust for Historic Preservation

First Memorial Day plaque Charleston SC Copyright Nadia Orton 2015

Plaque honoring the first Memorial Day in the United States. Hampton Park, Charleston, South Carolina. Photo: Nadia K. Orton, September 6, 2015

 

Every May, the nation marks Memorial Day, the longstanding tradition we use to recognize fallen veterans. The holiday has its origins in “Decoration Day,” originally held in Charleston, South Carolina in 1865, when thousands of former slaves, Union soldiers, and missionaries honored Union soldiers who had died in a Confederate prison and were subsequently buried in a makeshift mass grave.

Historian David Blight recounts that after the soldiers’ proper burials, a massive parade followed. Participants decorated the graves with flowers, and clergy delivered speeches to commemorate the fallen.

My personal introduction to Decoration Day began with oral histories provided by my family’s elders. In rural Tidewater, Virginia, they told stories of Decoration Day commemorations stretching back to the 1880s. Parades began in African-American communities and ended at local black cemeteries. Families and friends honored their ancestors through song and praise, while their graves were cleaned and re-decorated.

They had good reason to pay homage: Many veterans had returned from the front lines of war to become leaders in their communities, forming masonic lodges, burial societies, schools, churches, and cemeteries. These institutions formed the foundations of post-Civil War African-American communities, giving their communities potential for the very type growth and development African-Americans had been denied in slavery. READ MORE…

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Filed under Charleston County, Civil War, Craven County, Mississippi, New Hanover County, New York, North Carolina, Petersburg, Portsmouth, Slavery, South Carolina, U. S. Colored Troops, USCT Diaries, Virginia

Memorials to United States Colored Troops, Pt. 3 – Atlanta, Georgia

Memorials to United States Colored Troops

A photo-essay series dedicated to the United States Colored Troops, and how they were remembered in contemporary news media

Pt. 3

Atlanta, Georgia

South-View Cemetery

Grave of Cpl George “Union” Wilder – Co. F, 137th Regiment, U. S. Colored Infantry. The inscription includes his name, the symbol of three links, representing affiliation with the Order of Odd Fellows, his age, and “A soldier of the Civil War/was killed in the riot/ of Atlanta Sept. 26, 1906”

 

“One of the dead negroes killed in the Brownsville fight Monday night, and up to this time unknown, has been identified as George Wilder, 70 years old.” — Atlanta Journal Constitution, September 26, 1906

(Photo: Nadia K. Orton, February 15, 2012)

 

 

Grave of Bishop Henry McNeal Turner , Chaplain, 1st. U. S. Colored Infantry

 

“The funeral of Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, senior bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, who died at Windsor, Ontario, Canada, Saturday, May 8, will take place at Big Bethel Church, this city, on Wednesday, May 19. The remains will lay in state the day preceding the funeral. Nearly all of the bishops of the church, the general offices and many ministers are expected to be in attendance.

Bishop Turner was born in South Carolina in July, 1833. He learned his alphabet when he was nine years of age and while working for a firm of lawyers at Abbeville, S. C., was taught to read. He studied under the tutelage of his employers, history, literature and other subjects. When quite a young man he was ordained a minister of the M. E. Church, South. He later joined the African Methodist Episcopal Church and was appointed to a charge in Baltimore by the late Bishop Daniel A. Payne. While in Baltimore he studied languages and the higher branches.

First Colored Army Chaplain

During part of the Civil War he was pastor of what is now known as Metropolitan Church, Washington. President Lincoln appointed him the first colored chaplain in the Negro troops enlisted during the war. When the colored troops were established after the war, President Johnson appointed him a chaplain in the regular army. He soon resigned, however, and organized the work of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Georgia.

He was elected manager of the publication department of the church in 1876, serving until his elevation to the bishopric in 1880. He organized the work of the denomination in Africa, as well as annual conferences in this country. He had served as a member of the legislature in Georgia and of constitutional conventions in that state. He was considered one of the most forceful characters in his denomination.

Bishop Turner was married three times. His second wife was the late Mrs. Harriett Wayman, of Baltimore, widow of Bishop Alexander Wayman. His third wife, Mrs. Laura Lemon Turner, and two sons, Jonathan and David Turner, survive.” —The New York Age, May 13, 1915

 

Ledger grave of Bishop Henry McNeal Turner

“TURNER – Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, February 1, 1834-May 9, 1915 – Grandson of an African Prince/Bishop Presiding Elder, Pastor/Chaplain (U.S. Army), State Senator (Georgia)/Organizer and Builder of the/African Methodist Episcopal Church/In Georgia, West and South Africa/Missiologist, Publisher, Activist Theologian/And Heroic Christian/

Noble and Indomitable Spirit/Rest In Peace/May God Bless

Erected by the Women’s Missionary Society/Sixth District — A.M.E. Church/June 1996/Rev. Augusta H. Hall, Jr. Archivist/Mrs. Edith W. Ming, Supervisor/Bishop Donald G. K. Ming, Presiding Prelate/

 

“VAST HOST PAY TRIBUTE TO LATE BISHOP TURNER – Seldom has a larger crowd witnessed a funeral here than the one that saw the sad last rites paid to Bishop Henry M. Turner at Big Bethel A. M. E. Church today.

Bishops of the church, general officers and visiting ministers were here to pay a last tribute of respect to the man that organized the work in Georgia, but whose influence is seen in the work being done by denomination in West and South Africa and in various sections of the United States.

The services were conducted by Bishop James S. Flipper, of this city. He paid a splendid tribute to the life of the deceased prelate. Others taking part in the services included: Bishops C. S. Smith, Levi J. Coppin, William D. Chappelle, Joshua H. Jones, H. B. Parks, B. F. Lee, C. T. Shaffer and J. M. Conner. The following bishops were unable to be present: Evans Tyree, who is presiding over the sessions of the Philadelphia Conference at Dover, Del.; J. Albert Johnson, who is in South Africa; W. H. Heard who is in West Africa, and John Hurst, who is visiting the work of the denomination in South America and the West Indies.

Telegrams of condolence and resolutions from various religious bodies eulogized the deceased bishop.

Many were the tribute paid by prominent whites here when they heard that the prelate was dead.

As was told THE AGE last week, Bishop Turner died in Windsor , Ont.; on May 8. He was born in South Carolina 83 years ago, and enjoyed the distinction of having been the first colored man appointed to a chaplaincy in the United States Army. He was elected a bishop in 1880 and had his funeral occurred one day later it would have been on the thirty-fifth anniversary of his elevation to the episcopacy.” — The New York Age, May 20, 1915

(Photos: Nadia K. Orton, February 15, 2012)

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Filed under Canada, Civil War, Georgia, In Memoriam, Memorials to Civil War Veterans, Obituary Files, Ontario, Slavery, South Carolina, U. S. Colored Troops, USCT Diaries, Virginia

Memorials to United States Colored Troops, Pt. 2 – Norfolk, Virginia

Memorials to United States Colored Troops

A photo-essay series dedicated to the United States Colored Troops, and how they were remembered in contemporary news media

Pt. 2

Norfolk, Virginia

West Point Cemetery, Calvary Cemetery

Cornelius Garner Service Record

“Civil War Veteran Dies at Age of 94 — Cornelius Garner, one of the city’s oldest residents, passed away on Sunday morning after a long illness.

He was within less than a month of being ninety-five years of age, having been born in St. Mary’s County, Md., on February 11, 1846.

He was one of the last two surviving members of the Local Grand Army of the Republic organization.

He joined the Federal army upon his escape from slavery at the age of eighteen years. Following his discharge from the army, he had worked as a farmer, seaman, oyster-shucker, and landscape gardener.

Mr. Garner’s funeral was held Wednesday afternoon at two-thirty o’clock from the First Baptist Church of which he had been a member for more than sixty-nine years. The eulogy will be delivered by the pastor, the Rev. Richard H. Bowling.

Military honors were paid the deceased by the local Spanish-American War Veterans. Men of this group will also serve as active pallbearers, along with members of the local Star of the East Lodge of Odd Fellows and the St. Jon’s Lodge of Good Samaritans.

The connection of the deceased with these organizations dates back a full sixty years.

BURIED IN CALVARY

One of the interesting coincidences regarding the deceased is that he will be interred in Calvary Cemetery just outside of which is a large roadside marker of the site as a camp for Federal soldiers during the Civil War.

Mr. Garner himself was stationed in this camp as a young army recruit and many a day marched from there down to Bute St. and past the small brick church that then occupied the site of the present First Baptist Church.

Mr. Garner is survived by his widow, Mrs. Mary Davis Garner, formerly of Portsmouth. Other survivors include nieces and nephews.

According to his pastor, secret plans had been on foot to have the congregation give a surprise celebration of Mr. Garner’s birthday in consideration both of his advanced age and his being the oldest surviving male member.” – The New Journal and Guide, February 1, 1941

 

Charles Grandy USN Norfolk VA Copyright 2015 Nadia Orton

Charles Grandy, USS St. Lawrence – Calvary Cemetery, Norfolk, Virginia

 

“Comrade Charles Grandy, Norfolk’s last surviving colored veteran of the War Between the States, will not participate in the Memorial Day celebration this year. Death overtook him just twenty days before the annual celebration, and a few months before he reached his 100th birthday.

Mr. Grandy passed away on Saturday at his home, 609 Smith Street to join his old friend comrade Cornelius Garner who died last year, and his brother Willis, whose passing Friday night preceded his by a scant few hours.

In impressive double funeral services which were conducted at St. John A. M. E. Church for the Messrs. Grandy by the Rev. H. M. Shields, Comrade Grandy’s long career came to an end.

Pays Tribute to Life

Taking his text from Mark: 13-35, the speaker paid tribute to the church life of the deceased and point out the fact that the late Mr. Grandy was only 47 years younger than the A. M. E. connection.

The deceased was accorded full military honors with members of the United Spanish American War Veterans with Veterans of Foreign Wars serving as honorary and active pall-bearers.

Born as a slave on the old Cook plantation in Camden, N. C., January 31, 1842, young Grandy picked cotton and plowed corn with the other slaves, but one day he stole up the river to Hampton Roads to join the Union forces.

(After the war Mr. Grandy became a foreman down at Great Bridge and during that time helped to build his home on Smith street, and the first building owned by St. John A. M. E. Church.

But his greatest pleasure came from recounting his experiences as acting general in the G. A. R. Upon his suggestion, the annual convention was held in Springfield, Ill., last August and he left his sick bed to make the trip.

His niece Mrs. Charleston who has been his nurse for the past eight years, tried to discourage all plans for the trip, and in a final effort, asked Comrade Grandy just what he was going to do in case something happened.

“Suppose you get sick on the train?” she said.

“Well, Hale will know before you,’ replied the old soldier as he climbed aboard the train for Springfield.

He repeated incidents of what last convention often and always told about his visit to Abraham Lincoln’s grave.

“When I found it I wept for joy,” he was accustomed to saying, “and I just stretched out on that grave and went to sleep.”

He was the true soldier up to the very last and always insisted upon receiving his company downstairs because coming up to his bedroom made him “feel like sick.”

This same spirit was demonstrated several years ago when he refused to ride in the car which had been provided for the veterans. He walked about ten city blocks before he collapsed in the wheelchair which was being pushed behind him.” — New Journal and Guide, May 24, 1941

(Photo: Nadia K. Orton, May 26, 2015)

A A Portlock West Point Norfolk

Anthony A. Portlock, Ward Room Steward, USS Minnesota 1862-1864 – West Point Cemetery, Norfolk

 

“Mr. Anthony A. Portlock one of Norfolk’s best known and most estimable citizens who has been ailing at his residence on Johnson Avenue, for sometime and who had sufficiently recovered to be able to resume his duty in connection with an office in the Maryland was taken suddenly ill Wednesday evening last from which he never rallied, death claiming him as a victim about 12 o’clock his funeral took place Sunday afternoon from the Bank St. Baptist at 2:30, Rev. H. H. Mitchell, D. D., the pastor, officiating, assisted by several of the local clergymen. Calloiux Post, No. 2, of which the deceased was a member attended the funeral in body; Dahlgreen, 4; Shaw 5, and Silas Fellow, 7, of Portsmouth, united with Callioux Post in respect to the deceased. The interrment was in West Point Cemetery, the remains being followed to their last resting place by a host of friends. The deceased was a consistent Christian for forty years. He left several children, Messrs. L. H. Portlock, Randall Portlock, Miss Nina Portlock and Mrs. Mary ——; and his wife Mrs. Mary Portlock and another young son to mourn their loss.” — Richmond Planet, 1898

“The colored G. A. R. Posts of Norfolk and Portsmouth attended the funeral Sunday of Anthony Portlock, a well known colored man.” – The Norfolk-Virginian, February 1, 1898

(Photo: Nadia K. Orton, October 30, 2012)

 

Pvt. Marshall Land 2 USCC Copyright 2015 Nadia Orton

Pvt. Marshall Land, Co. H, 2nd Regiment, U. S. Colored Cavalry – Calvary Cemetery, Norfolk, Virginia

 

“Rev. Marshall Land, one of Norfolk’s most prominent and influential citizens, and a member of those fast depleting ranks of the Grand Army of the Republic, an old settler in the town, died at his residence at the corner of Goff and Bolton streets, Saturday, June 30, at 12:15 o’clock, in his 75th year.

Rev. Land had been in declining health for some time, but with strong constitutional powers, he remarkably withstood his ailments and the bearing down of the infirmities of age, until about two weeks before his death when he was forced to take to his bed.

Although, having resigned from actively holding pastorates for more than a dozen years ago, upon the advice of his physician on account of a throat infection, Rev. Land for forty years previous to that time had been a power in the Baptist ministry and held enviable influence in the denomination until the day of his death.

Built Several Churches

He founded a number of churches in Norfolk county years before Norfolk city comprised that section where his home was. He built a church in Shouler’s Hill, one in Bower’s Hill and Ebenezer Baptist Church in Norfolk county, and pastored these charges for several years.

Rev. Land had been a member of the First Baptist Church of this city, for over 49 years and would have celebrated his 50th year membership there in September. The congregation under the leadership of pastor R. H. Bowling was at the time of his death planning to give him a grand surprise celebration on his fiftieth anniversary as a member of the church.

Marshall Land practically settled Barboursville, having been one of the first residents in that section, it was thru the great respect that the most influential white citizens of Norfolk city and county held for him, he was able to aid any number of families to become home owners in Barboursville.

In this respect his civic pride never waned. He always urged those whom he knew to buy homes and he lived to see what was a sparse settlement when he moved there, to become a fine residence section with colored home owners.

Member School Board

Besides preaching the gospel, building churches and going among his people as an apostle of home ownership, Rev. Land found time in his earlier days to take a hand now and then in Norfolk county politics. That he was a man of large influence was recognized by those around the county courthouse, and to be in the favor of Marshall Land was a coveted desire of young aspirants for county offices. He was made a member of Norfolk County School Board in those days when his residence sat in the county and many of the teachers owed their appointments to Rev. Land’s influence.

An impressive echo from those days when Negroes were in the midst of the political arena in Norfolk county was the appearance of Lawyer R. H. Bagby, white, of Portsmouth, at the funeral of Rev. Marshall Land. Lawyer Bagby was, too, one time a power in county politics.

Rev. Land’s funeral was held Tuesday at the First Baptist Church. Rev. J. M. Armistead, dean of the Baptist Ministry in Tidewater, and pastor of Zion Baptist Church, Portsmouth, delivered the funeral sermon. Dr. Armistead stated that when he came to this section 45 years ago Rev. Marshall Land was one of the first Baptist ministers he met here.

A large crowd attended the funeral. Rev. Armistead was assisted by Dr. Bowling, pastor of First Baptist. Eulogies were read by Rev. C. C. Somerville, on behalf of the Tidewater Ministerial Alliance; Rev. Saunders, of Princess Anne County, and a former pastor of Shiloh Baptist Church here; Rev. Metz, Rev. Black, former and present pastors of Shiloh respectively; Andrew Young, deacon of a church built by Rev. Land; Attorney R. H. Bagby, of Portsmouth.

Solos were sung by Mr. Lawrence Harrison, Mr. Paul Langley and Madame Wimberly.

Eastern Light Lodge of Masons and Grand Army of the Republic, both of which Rev. Land was a member, held ritualistic services at the bier. The deceased was one of the oldest members of the lodge.

He is survived by his widow, Mrs. Sophia Land; four children, Mrs. Marcella Paige, Mrs. Ella Fauckland, Mr. Russell Land, of New York city, and attorney Walter H. Land, of this city, and 14 grandchildren and 4 great grandchildren.

A number of white friends of the deceased attended the funeral. Interment was in Calvary Cemetery, under the direction of undertaker W. C. Baker.” — Norfolk Journal and Guide, July 7, 1923

(Photo: Nadia K. Orton, May 23, 2015)

 

Cpl Daniel Langley 2 USCI Norfolk Copyright Nadia Orton 2012

Cpl. Daniel Langley, Co. B, 2nd Regiment, U. S. Colored Infantry – West Point Cemetery, Norfolk, Virginia

 

“The funeral of Mr. Daniel Langley, who died at his home on East Brambleton avenue Tuesday, will be held at St. John’s A. M. E. Church, of which he had been a member for 50 years Friday at 2 o’clock.

Mr. Langley was 84 years of age, was one of Norfolk’s oldest and best known citizens. He had been in declining health for about ten years. He was a Civil War Veteran and an active member of the G. A. R.

For years Mr. Langley conducted a shoe repair shop on Charlotte street, giving up that occupation on account of failing health and later entering the Navy Yard.

He is survived by a brother, Mr. St. Paul Langley; sister, Mrs. Lucile Proctor and a foster-daughter, Mrs. Sallie T. Dickey, all of Norfolk.” — Norfolk Journal and Guide, October 2, 1926

(Photo: Nadia K. Orton, November 6, 2012)

 

 

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Filed under Chesapeake, Civil War, In Memoriam, Memorials to Civil War Veterans, Norfolk, Norfolk County, Slavery, U. S. Colored Troops, USCT Diaries, Virginia

Richmond, Virginia: A sketch of the life of Valentine Griffin (1820-1894)

Distractions that lead to unexpected learning opportunities are curious things. The scourge of writer’s block was an unwelcome visitor this week, and thumbing through newspaper archives seemed the only remedy for sheer frustration. However, an interesting obituary in the Richmond Planet caught my attention. It featured a brief summary of the life of Mr. Valentine Griffin, an aged and much respected figure in Richmond’s African American community, who passed on March 16, 1894.

Richmond Planet, April 7, 1894

“Died at his residence, 1222 Buchanan St., Friday morning, March 16, 1894, in the seventy-fourth year of his age, Mr. Valentine Griffin. Deceased was born of free parentage in Charles City County, Va., worked as hireling until he became twenty one years of age. He removed to the County of Henrico, and there remained until the beginning of the Civil War. He was pressed into the service of the Confederates in the year of 1862, and placed upon the breast works. Near the close of the year 1863, he left the Confederates and went to the Union Army, and was placed in charge of the Commissary, where he remained until the close of the war.

He was with the Sherman Division in the far South, and it was some time after the surrender before he returned.

In 1866 he removed to his late residence in this city.

He was a member of the church for forty nine years; was a member of the Fidelity Division, Sons of Temperance for twenty years; was a member of the Rising Sons of Zion for thirty eight years, and the Daughters of Messiah for twenty nine years. In all these he was a faithful member.

All who knew him loved him, and he continually added to his host of friends. The principles of honesty, integrity, and sobriety, which were inculcated in childhood, and which are peculiar to and characteristic of himself, grew stronger as he grew to manhood; but in his declining years when nature began to fail him, they remained undaunted and the same; even imperishable shall they live. When he shall have mouldered away in forgotten dust, the philanthropist of ancient or modern times could not have left a richer legacy than he, ever had they their million extended from generation to generation. In tears of regret we leave Valentine Griffin to sleep the sleep of a peaceful citizen and a devout Christian and gentlemen.”

Immediately following the obituary was a testimonial to Mr. Griffin from Spencer T. Hancock.

Richmond Planet, April 7, 1894

“Dear Sir: Excuse me if you please. I want to say a word about my friend, Mr. Valentine Griffin. For twenty years I have known well. He was a pure, honest, upright Christian man. His word was as good as his bond. In all of his dealings with me for 20 years he never one time failed to fulfill a promise. If too unwell to attend to it himself, would invariable send a son or daughter.

In speaking of his afflictions to me he would cheerfully remark: ‘I am in the hands of the Lord. He knows best, and all that He does is right.’ I cannot express my feelings as I would wish, but a pure, good Christian man has left us to reap his reward, which I feel must be great. I am past three score and ten, have had dealings with a great many all over the country and never with a more honest, upright, Christian man than Valentine Griffin. What an example the has left for his children. May they follow it. May God bless us all, and may we all pattern after the life of this good man. He was my good friend, and I am proud to say, Valentine Griffin was my friend.”

A man of African descent, born free in 19th-century Virginia, pressed into Confederate service, escaped to Union lines, Sherman’s march to the sea? As a genealogist and confirmed history buff, this was simply too tempting. I had to dig a little deeper.

Half of my paternal ancestors from Virginia were born free from slavery, though that status didn’t necessarily make their lives any easier. One of the many restrictions placed on their freedom was the passage of a law in 1793 that required free African Americans to register every year.

“Free Negroes or mulattoes shall be registered and numbered in a book to be kept by the town clerk, which shall specify age, name, color, status and by whom, and in what court emancipated. Annually the Negro shall be delivered a copy for twenty-five cents. A penalty is fixed for employing a Negro without a certificate; the Negro may be committed to jail. Every free Negro shall once in every three years obtain a new certificate.” (Black Laws of Virginia)

Forced to abide by the punitive measure, at age 21, Valentine Griffin registered with the Charles City County Court in July, 1841, along with siblings John, William Bolling, David, James, Cassandra, and Eliza Ann. His registration read:

“Ordered that it be certified that it appears to the satisfaction of the Court by the testimony of _______that Valentine Griffin (son of Reuben Griffin), a man of dark brown complexion, 21 years old the 15th of April last, five feet six inches high, scar on the fore finger of the left hand, and one or two on the back of the right hand, was born free in this County.”

Valentine’s obituary noted that he moved to Henrico County soon after his twenty-first birthday. Shifting to Henrico County documentation, I located a marriage record for Valentine and Nancy “Lewis or Adams” (per the document), on January 5, 1847. There’s evidence that several family members made the move to Henrico along with Valentine. Between 1851 and 1864, his name regularly appears on lists of free African American registrants with James and William Griffin, who may have been his brothers.

1854 Free Negro Tax List, Library of Virginia

In addition, I located what may be a “free negro” certificate for Valentine’s father, Reuben, who registered at the age of eighty-two in Henrico County Court on April 3, 1848. If correct, Reuben’s date of birth would have been sometime around 1766, which would appear to match the date of birth estimates for Reuben Griffin in the 1810, 1820, 1830, and 1840 Federal Census records of Charles City County, Virginia.

Free negro certificate for Reuben Griffin, 1848, Henrico County Court, Virginia

By 1850, Valentine, Nancy, and son Malachi (Malachia), are documented in the Western District of Henrico County, and by 1860, are documented in Henrico’s Eastern Division, with children Joshua, Maria, and Jeremiah.

Valentine’s obituary notes that he was pressed into Confederate service in 1862.  I located his Confederate service record. In it, Valentine is described as a “helper, native of Virginia, citizen of Richmond,” and “free negro.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The use of the term “helper” is interesting; neither Valentine nor most free African American males between the ages of 18 and 50 had much choice in the matter. As the Richmond Dispatch reported on July 17, 1861, “any free negro duly detailed and notified as aforesaid, who shall fail or refuse to obey the requisition as aforesaid, shall be subject to the penalties provided by law for persons drafted from the militia and failing or refusing to obey such draft,” as per the regulations passed by the Virginia Assembly regarding “negro conscription.”

After the war, in the 1870 Census, Valentine is documented in Richmond’s Jefferson Ward, working as a tobacconist. Sons Malachi and Joshua worked in a tobacco factory, and daughters Maria and Sarah, and son Joseph were “attending school.” In 1880, the Griffins were living on N. 20th Street, with Valentine documented as a general laborer, wife Nancy keeping house, son Jeremiah working in a tobacco factory, and daughter Maria listed as a servant.

1877 Beers map, Jefferson Ward, Richmond, Va. Library of Congress

Spencer T. Hancock, who provided a written testimonial to the Richmond Planet in honor of Valentine Griffin, relayed a wish for Valentine and Nancy’s children to someday “follow his example, “ and if Mr. Hancock meant an industrious life spent serving their community, then by all accounts they did. Son Jeremiah B. Griffin eventually relocated to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he married, and became a pastor. He passed away on March 31, 1910, as a result of a terrible trolley accident, as reported by the Philadelphia Enquirer. He’s buried in Merion Memorial Park, Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.

Son Rev. Joshua R. Griffin, ordained in 1887, was a shoemaker by trade. He was also a mason, member of the Common Council of Jackson Ward, and later, a trustee and president of the East End Memorial Burial Association.  A small biography carried in an 1895 edition of the Richmond Planet, described him thusly:

The Richmond Planet. Date unknown

“J. R. Griffin was born in Henrico County, October 9, 1853. He sold daily papers during the war. Later he attended night school and also the public schools for several sessions after they were established.

On account of straightened circumstances, he went to work in a tobacco factory. He conceived the idea that he could learn a trade of some kind during his leisure moments, and accordingly served an apprenticeship under Mr. Smith, a shoe-maker who did business on 25th street, and Mr. Patterson (now deceased), who lived also in Church Hill.

In 1880, he went in business for himself____. He has done business within ____blocks of the present location ____May, ’81.

He served on the Republican City ____Committee one term.

He was judge of election of the 4th Precinct, Jackson Ward in1884 in the Blaine and Cleveland campaign when more than 800 suffragans cast their ballots for their choice.

In 1886 he was elected to the City Council when the reform movement swept the city. He was true to the nominees of the caucus, through all the exciting scenes.

In 1892, he was re-elected and served faithfully. He was again elected in 1894, which term he is now serving.

His motto is “Find the right, and stick to it.”

He is a member of Friendship Lodge, No. 19, A. F.M. He is secretary and has served six years. Has served as W. Master for five years.

He is Royal Arch Mason and is now holding the position of High Priest of Mt. Olivet Commandery, Knights Templars. He is now serving a third term as Eminent Commander, being elected consecutively. He served as District Deputy Grand Master three consecutive terms, and as Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of the State of Virginia. He has been superintendent of the Fifth Street Bapt. Church Sunday School since its organization. Although last summer he tendered his resignation it was not received.

He is a man of independent action, carefully weighing facts as presented to him and fearlessly acting in accordance with his convictions. Rarely losing his temper in a controversy, he is influential with those with whom he comes in contact. He is a pleasing speaker and possesses oratorical powers of which he may well be proud.”

Joshua married twice, to first wife Minerva Payne (ca. 1854-1904), and in 1909, to Virginia A. Stewart Miles, widow of Reuben Miles, and daughter of Thomas and Mary Stewart. Rev. J. R. Griffin passed on January 30, 1914, and is buried in East End Cemetery with several family members.

Son Malachia H. Griffin was also active in social welfare and masonic organizations in Richmond, including the Independent Order of Saint Luke. Malachi passed away on February 26, 1905. At the time of his death, he’d just been promoted to the position of watchman at the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank. A description of his death and funeral was featured in the March 4, 1905 edition of the Richmond Planet.

“Seldom has there been a greater funeral display than was witnessed last Tuesday afternoon at the First Baptist Church, when Mr. Washington Early and Mr. Malachi Griffin, both faithful and devoted members of the I. O. St. Luke were laid away forever. There were about seventy-five carriages in the procession. One hearse was behind the other, both being preceded be a floral car, containing the costly designs sent by friends of the deceased.

Rev. W. T. Johnson, D. D., and Rev. Z. D. Lewis, D. D., were the principal speakers at the services, while letter after letter of condolences were read from friends and organizations. It was after 6 o’clock before the cortege moved to go to Evergreen Cemetery.

A peculiar feature of the affair was that Mr. Early had been watchman at the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank. His death created a vacancy and Mr. Griffin, who was apparently well was elected to succeed him. He went on duty Saturday night and on Sunday morning, he was a corpse, dying suddenly after reaching his residence on North 8th St.

Previous to this Mr. Griffin had made arrangements for draping the hall in memory of Mr. Early and it later transpired that he was draping it for himself as well. The remains of both of them ‘laid in state’ at the St. Luke’s Hall and the funeral just described was the result. Funeral Director William Isaac Johnson had charge of the remains of both of them. Mrs. Maggie L. Walker, the accomplished official of the order was present.”

According to his death record, (George) Washington Early (ca. 1858-Feb. 25, 1905), Malachia’s predecessor, was from Cumberland County, Virginia, and noted as a “night watchman.” He was unmarried at the time of his death. Mary E. Griffin, wife of Malachia H. Griffin, who passed in 1918, is also buried in Evergreen Cemetery with her husband.

Gravestone of Malachia H. Griffin, Evergreen Cemetery. April 6, 2013. Photo: Nadia K. Orton

 

Independent Order of Saint Luke building, Richmond, Virginia. January 22, 2015. Photo: Nadia K. Orton

One question lingers: just where are Valentine Griffin and his wife Nancy buried? There are three candidate cemeteries, Barton Heights, Evergreen, or East End Cemetery. A trip to the Library of Virginia should sort that out. Until then, I continue to marvel at how one genealogy clue (in this case, an obituary) may illuminate a glorious path of discovery. It introduced me to the Valentine Griffin Family of Richmond, a free family of color from Charles City County, Virginia, and their legacy of social and political service to Richmond’s late 18th-early 19th century African American community.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Filed under Charles City County, Civil War, Georgia, In Memoriam, Memorials to Civil War Veterans, Obituary Files, Richmond, Slavery, U. S. Colored Troops, Virginia

Warren County, North Carolina – Earth Day, 2017: Trees, branches, and documenting family roots

IMG_20170422_154125283 - Copy (2)

Warren County, North Carolina

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April 22, 2017 · 9:45 pm